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The Reformed Financial Mechanism

The success of the current international climate change negotiations crucially depends on how much finance is going to be made available to support developing country climate change activities, and it is unlikely that adequate financing will be forthcoming in the absence of an acceptable governance framework.

The substantive aims of the project focus on four primary areas, on which to generate recommendations:

  • How to design decision making processes and remits for the UNFCCC COP and RFM Executive Board so as to ensure sufficient political oversight and buy-in, without the danger of over-politicized micro-management of the RFM management of its financial flows.
  • How to insure proper stakeholder representation, in particular, how to design the selection of stakeholder representatives, and how to design their role in the decision-making process.
  • How to design independent oversight (audit, monitoring, and evaluation) procedures within the framework of existing legal arrangements which will provide sufficient safeguards against malpractice both at the international and the national level.
  • How to oversee financial flows for compliance with financial commitments.


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RFM Bibliography

•  Benito Müller  Time to Decide!. The Adaptation Fund After Marrakech OCP/ ecbi Discussion Note  Jan 2017 pdf 11.3mb

•  Benito Müller  Whatever happened to the Paris Predictability Problem? Part II. Unconventional Options for Enhancing the Predictability of Multilateral Climate Finance OCP Blog June 2016 pdf

•  Benito Müller  Whatever happened to the Paris Predictability Problem?. The Paris Cycle-wreck: beyond (partial) salvage? OCP Blog Jan 2016 pdf 284kb

•  Benito Müller  Finance in Paris. Non à la Nouvelle Haute Couture Impériale! OCP Blog Jan 2016

•  Laurel Murray, with Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri  Enhanced Direct Access. A Brief History (2009-15) ecbi Background paper  Dec 2015 Paper

•  David Robinson and Benito Müller  Transforming multinational climate finance. Section 7 in Outreach at COP 21 (8 December) Stakeholderforum   Outreach website original Dec 2015 PDF version

•  Benito Müller and Xolisa Ngwadla  Procedural Arrangements for the Paris Replenishment Cycle. OCP/ecbi Discussion note Nov 2015 Discussion note

•  Benito Müller  Paris Replenishment Cycle. Summary Brief - OCP/ecbi Summary Brief Nov 2015 Brief

•  Benito Müller  Strategic Divisions of Labour. Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board, OCP/ecbi Submission to the Green Climate Fund Board Nov 2015 Submission

•  Benito Müller  On the Virtues of Strategic Divisions of Labour. Some thoughts on strategies for the Green Climate Fund and the Financial Mechanism of the Paris Agreement Blog Nov 2015 OCP blog,213kb

•  Benito Müller & Xolisa J. Ngwadla  A Paris Replenishment Cycle for Contributions to the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism. Oct 2015 Paris Replenishment Cycle, 259kb

•  Benito Müller  Finance for the Paris Climate Compact. The role of earmarked (sub-) national contributions Jun 2015 Climate Strategies Policy Brief, 504kb

•  Benito Müller  The Paris Predictability Problem. What to do about climate finance for the 2020 climate agreement? Apr 2015 OCP/ecbi Think Piece, 217kb

•  Benito Müller  A lifeline for the Adaptation Fund?. OCP Blog Apr 2015 192kb

•  Benito Müller  Institutional linkages and relations between the Adaptation Fund and other institutions under the Convention. OCP/ecbi Submission to the Standing Committee on Finance Apr 2015 Submission

•  Benito Müller  What's in a name? The naming of GCF accreditation categories. OCP/ecbi Concept Note Apr 2015 Concept Note

•  Benito Müller and Liane Schalatek  The Adaptation Fund at a Crossroads. Mar 2015 Adaptation Fund Crossroads- Report

•  Anju Sharma, Benito Müller, Pratim Roy  Consolidation and devolution of national climate finance. The Case of India Mar 2015 Consolidation and Devolution

•  Benito Müller  Engaging Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in developing countries. Enhanced Direct Access and the GCF Private Sector Facility Feb 2015 Mobilizing MSMEs - final report

•  Benito Müller  GCF Direct Access Accreditation: A Simple Strategy. OCP Blog Dec 2014 pdf 68kb

•  Benito Müller  Access to Green Climate Fund: In Desperate Need of a Strategy.. OCP Blog Nov 2014 OCP blog pdf, 76kb

•  Benito Müller  Country (Adaptation) Funding Needs in the GCF: Operationalising the 'country needs' investment criterion. Submission to the GCF Investment Committee Aug 2014 pdf 593kb

•  Benito Müller  The Green Climate Fund at the Cross Roads: Bog standard or ground-breaking?. OCP blog May 2014 pdf 72kb

•  Charlotte Streck and David Rossati  Establishing a GCF operated Southern Solidarity Fund. Legal Options and Challenges May 2014 pdf 272kb

•  Benito Müller   South-South Solidarity in Climate Finance: A GCF operated SOUTHERN SOLIDARITY FUND. OCP/ecbi/OIES Concept Note Mar 2014 pdf 139kb

•  Benito Müller   What is EDA? A Rough Guide to Enhanced Direct Access. OCP/ecbi/OIES Mar 2014 pdf 176kb

•  Benito Müller  Concentration of GCF resources: what is at issue?. OCP/ecbi/OIES Discussion Note Mar 2014 pdf 192kb

•  Benito Müller, with William Pizer, Sophie de Coninck, Dan Morrow, Gonzalo Serrano de la Rosa, Anju Sharma, and Ced Hesse  Devolved Access Modalities: Lessons for the Green Climate Fund from existing practice. ecbi Policy Brief Mar 2014 pdf 504kb

•  Benito Müller  Comments regarding ‘Policies and Procedures for the Initial Allocation of Fund Resources. BACKGROUND PAPER GCF/B.06/05 Feb 2014 pdf 1.5mb

•  Anju Sharma  In Bali, build a Fund you can be proud of.. It Must be Said! blog Feb-14 pdf 100kb

•  Benito Müller  How will the Green Climate Fund allocate its money? All you wanted to know but were afraid to ask. cdkn.org  Jan 2014 pdf 468kbJan 2014: Blog published at 'cdkn.org'  : Spanish version, pdf 536kb

•  Benito Müller  Performance-based formulaic resource allocation - a cautionary tale. Some lessons for the Green Climate Fund from multilateral funding. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies EV 60  Jan 2014 pdf 556kb

•  Benito Müller  Enhancing Direct Access and Country Ownership: Status quo and the way forward. Discussion Note for the Sixth Meeting of the Green Climate Fund Board Jan 2014 pdf 376kbJan 2014: (Appendices 532kb pdf)

•  Benito Müller   GCF Secretariat Informal Consultative Talk on Enhanced Direct Access. Afterthoughts Dec 2013 pdf 140kb

•  Benito Müller   GCF Secretariat Informal Consultative Talk on Enhanced Direct Access. Preliminary Thoughts Dec 2013 pdf 80kb

•  Benito Müller  Same old, same old ... Too late for a paradigm shift? Open letter to the GCF Board and supporters of enhanced/devolved access in the wake of the Paris Board meeting (GCF/B.05). Blog published at 'It must be said!' Aug 2013 pdf 204kb

•  Benito Müller  On Resource Allocation Systems: Comments in response to GCF/B.05/05. OIES Comments Oct 2013 pdf 512kb

•  Luis Gomez-Echeverri  On Enhanced Direct Access through National Funding Entities. OIES  Oct 2013 pdf 196kb

•  Benito Müller  The Allocation of (Adaptation) Resources: Lessons from fiscal transfer mechanisms. Oxford Energy and Environment Brief, September 2013 Sep 2013 pdf 564kb

•  Benito Müller  Metaphysics or Pragmatics? How to proceed with the Arrangements between the COP and the GCF?. Submission to the UNFCCC Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) at its fifth meeting 27-30 August, Bonn, Germany Aug 2013 pdf 393kb

•  Benito Müller with Samuel Fankhauser, and Maya Forstater   Quantity Performance Payment by Results: Operationalizing enhanced direct access for mitigation at the Green Climate Fund. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies EV 59  Jul-13 pdf 705kb

•  Anju Sharma  Transparency on ice: GCF Board decision beggars belief. It Must be Said! blog Jul-13 pdf 276kb

•  Benito Müller  "For years I’ve been arguing for devolution". in Local actors are ready to act: 6 views on how the Green Climate Fund could reach them Both Ends  Jun-13 pdf 640kb

•  Johannes Berliner, Christine Grüning, Carola Menzel, and Sven Harmeling  Enhancing direct access to the Green Climate Fund. CDKN Policy Brief  Jun-13 pdf 588kb

•  Benito Müller  On ‘Being Accountable’: What does it mean for an Operating Entity of the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism to be accountable to the COP, and how does this relate to operationalizing Art. 11.3 (b)?. Submission to the UNFCCC Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) at its fourth meeting 15-17 June, Bonn, Germany Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  Jun-13 pdf 192kb

•  Benito Müller  ‘Enhanced (Direct) Access’ Through ‘(National) Funding Entities’ Etymology and Examples. OIES Information Note on the Green Climate Fund Business Model Framework  Apr-13 pdf 216kb

•  Benito Müller  Preferred Enhanced Access. Submission to the GCF on the Business Model Framework OIES Submission to the GCF  Mar-13 pdf 108kb

•  Benito Müller  A Delhi Vision. for the Green Climate Fund Business Model Framework – Some Thoughts on Access and Disbursement Oxford Energy and Environment Brief  Feb-13 pdf 1780kb

•  Anju Sharma  A Fig Leaf for Climate Change. It Must be Said! blog Jan-13 pdf 239kb

•  Arunabha Ghosh, Benito Müller, William Pizer, and Gernot Wagner  Mobilizing the Private Sector. Quantity-Performance Instruments for Public Climate Funds Oxford Energy and Environment Brief  Aug-12 pdf 284kb ; Also published by the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions, Duke University, USA as a Duke Environmental Economics Working Paper, and as an Environmental Defense Fund White Paper Aug-12:

•  John Ward, and Ministry  Kenya Climate Change Action Plan. Subcomponent 8 - Finance Final Reports and Annexes Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources and Ministry of Finance  Aug-12 pdf 6.1mb

•  Anju Sharma and Benito Müller  Observers and the Green Climate Fund. OIES Submission in response to the initial consultation by the Interim Secretariat of the GCF on observer participation in the proceedings of the Board of the GCF Mar 2012 pdf 104kb

•  Koko Warner and Sumaya Ahmed Zakieldeen  Loss and Damage Due to Climate Change. An Overview of the UNFCCC Negotiations February 2012  Feb 2012 pdf 274kb

•  Benito Müller  ENHANCED DIRECT ACCESS. Submission to the Transitional Committee on the issue of Thematic Funding Windows (Workstreams II & III) OIES paper  Aug 2011 pdf 313kb

•  Farrukh Iqbal Khan and Benito Müller  What Functions? What Form?. Operationalizing the Standing Committee ecbi Policy Brief  Aug 2011 pdf 616kb

•  Benito Müller  Dissecting the Green Climate Fund. Submission to the Transitional Committee on the issue of Thematic Funding Windows (Workstreams II & III) Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  July 2011 pdf 172kb

•  Anju Sharma  The role of non-governmental actors. SUBMISSION WITH REGARD TO WORK STREAM II, SUB-WORK STREAM 2 Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  June 2011 pdf 112kb

•  Benito Müller  Some further thoughts on the draft TC work plans. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  May 2011 pdf 124kb

•  Benito Müller and Anju Sharma  Submission of views regarding the questions for the first technical workshop. of the Transitional Committee suggested by the co-facilitators of work stream I Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  May 2011 pdf 252kb

•  Peter Lockley and Muyeye Chambwera  Solidarity Levies on Air Travel. The case for a ready-made innovative stream of finance in support of the current international climate negotiations Oxford Energy and Environment Brief  Apr 2011 pdf 224kb

•  Farrukh Iqbal Khan  The Green Climate Fund. What needs to be done for Durban (COP 17) Oxford Energy and Environment Brief  Feb 2011 pdf 140kb

•  Sven Harmeling and Benito Müller  What to do now?. Elements for organizing the Transitional Committee to establish the Green Climate Fund, based on lessons learned from the Global Fund experience Oxford Energy and Environment Brief  Jan-11 pdf 188kb

•  Benito Müller and Sven Harmeling  In the Footsteps of the Global Fund. How to establish the new climate fund Outreach COP16 Day 2  Nov-10 pdf 1,763kb

•  Benito Müller and Achala Chandani  What Expertise?. On who should be drafting the framework documents for a new Global Climate Fund Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Nov-10 pdf 136kb

•  Benito Müller  Climate Finance after Tianjin. How to reach a deal at Cancun? ecbi Policy Brief  Nov-10 pdf 514kb

•  Benito Müller  UN Climate Finance Negotiations. What after Tianjin, and how? European Climate Platform (ECP) Background Paper  Oct-10 pdf 304kb

•  David Ciplet, Benito Müller and J Timmons Roberts  How many people does it take … to administer long-term climate finance?. ecbi Policy Report  Oct-10 pdf 4.9Mb

•  Luis Gomez-Echaverri  National Funding Entities. Their role in the transition to a new paradigm of global cooperation on climate change ecbi Policy Brief  Oct-10 pdf 1200kb

•  Benito Müller  Reforming the Financial Mechanism. Some thoughts put together by the 2010 ecbi Fellowship ecbi Report  Oct-10 pdf 72kb

•  Compiled by Anju Sharma  ecbi Oxford Seminar 2010. Proceedings ecbi Report  Oct-10 pdf 752kb

•  Benito Müller and Achala Chandani  Why Reinvent the Wheel?. On establishing new funds while guiding and holding accountable operating entities of the UNFCCC financial mechanism OIES Energy & Environment Comment  Sep-2010 pdf 332kb

•  Momodou Njie, with contributions by Benito Müller  Climate Financing for Developing Countries. A post-Copenhagen synopsis ecbi Policy Brief  Jun-10 pdf 392kb

•  Benito Müller, with contributions by Anju Sharma, Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Dane P. Rook and Achala Chandani  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Part II The Question of Oversight, Post Copenhagen Synthesis Report ecbi Policy Brief  Jan 2014 pdf 818kb

•  Anju Sharma  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Renegotiating the role of civil society in the governance of climate finance OIES EV 50  Apr-10 pdf 664kb

•  Benito Müller with contributions by Anju Sharma, Luis Gomez-Echeverri, Dane P. Rook, and Achala Chandani  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC Part II. The Question of Oversight. Post Copenhagen Synthesis Report Oxford Energy and Environment Background Paper  Apr-10 pdf 1140kb

•  Benito Müller  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Post Copenhagen - Architecture and Governance ecbi Policy Brief  Apr 2010 pdf 396kb

•  Benito Müller  No Trust Without Respect. Adaptation Quick Start Funding at the Cross Roads Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Mar-10 pdf 152kb

•  Benito Müller  On the Need to Certify. Oversight of compliance with financial commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Dec-09 pdf 504kb

•  Benito Müller  The Time is Right!. Devolution of funding decisions to designated national/regional climate change funding entities Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Nov-09 pdf 176kb

•  Benito Müller  Procrustes' Bed & Ockham's Razor. The debate on existing institutions in climate finance Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Nov-09 pdf 400kb

•  Benito Müller  Under the Authority of the COP?. Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Oct-09 pdf 132kb

•  Benito Müller  Is There Room for Compromise?. The debate on institutional arrangements for climate finance Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Oct-09 pdf 472kb

•  Compiled by Anju Sharma  Climate Change Finance. Proceedings of the 2009 Oxford Fellowship and Seminar ecbi Report  Sep-09 pdf 884kb

•  Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri  Key Issues on Governance of Climate Change Finance. proceedings, La Redoute Bad Godesberg 9 August 2009 ecbi Policy Brief  Sep-09 pdf 328kb ; and written UK Answers to the Moderator's Questions Sep-09: pdf 172kb

•  Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri  Le mécanisme financier restructuré de la CCNUCC. Architecture at gouvernance ecbi note de politique generale  Jun-09 pdf 228kb

•  Benito Müller  2009 Bonn Seminar. On Future Financial Architecture & Governance ecbi Policy Brief  Jul-09 pdf 272kb

•  Benito Müller  Are Treasuries killing the climate deal?. Oxford Energy and Environment Comment  Jun-09 pdf 104kb ; 富国财政部将扼杀气候协议吗? Jun-09: 322kb

•  Benito Müller and Richard J T Klein  Adaptation Financing Instruments. Policy Brief for the Financing for Development, Conference on Climate Change Kigali  May-09 pdf 132kb

•  Benito Müller and Luis Gomez-Echeverri  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC Part I. Architecture and Governance Oxford Institute for Energy Studies Background Paper EV45  Apr-09 pdf 654kb

•  Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri  The Reformed Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. Architecture and Governance ecbi Policy Brief  Apr-09 pdf 204kb

•  Benito Müller, Luis Gomez-Echeverri  The Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC. A Brief History ecbi Policy Brief  Apr-09 pdf 192kb

•  Benito Müller  The Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Reformed Financial Mechanism (RFM) of the UNFCCC. with a Reply by Monique Barbut Apr-09 pdf 128kb

•  Muyeye Chambwera with Benito Müller  Fairer Flying: an international air travel levy for adaptation. Nov 2008 iied Briefing document (340kb)

•  Benito Müller  To Earmark or Not to Earmark?. A far-reaching debate on the use of auction revenue from (EU) Emissions Trading Oxford Institute for Energy Studies EV 43  Nov-08 pdf 444kb

•  Benito Müller  International Adaptation Finance. The Need for an Innovative and Strategic Approach Oxford Institute for Energy Studies EV 42  Jun-08 pdf 1.9Mb

•  Benito Müller and Cameron Hepburn  IATAL - an outline proposal for an International Air Travel Adaptation Levy. EV36 Oxford- Oxford Institute for Energy Studies  Oct-06 pdf 0.7MB

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